In this article, we explore Cleopatra | Biography, Beauty, History, Death, & Facts.
The life and legacy of the original Queen of the Nile, Cleopatra.
Cleopatra VII is one of the most famous women who has ever lived. Her story has inspired poets, dramatists, and artists for more than 2,000 years.
Through cunning and guile, she survived to rule Egypt as all of her siblings perished by the wayside.
Her famed beauty and charm led to one of the most celebrated romances in history—and the Ancient world’s ultimate tragedy.
Cleopatra: Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator was Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler. A member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. --- Wikipedia
- Born: January 69 BC, Alexandria, Egypt
- Died: August 30 BC, Alexandria, Egypt
- Children: Cleopatra Selene II, Caesarion, Alexander Helios, Ptolemy Philadelphus
- Spouse: Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (m. 50 BC–48 BC), Mark Antony (m. 32 BC–30 BC), Ptolemy XIV Philopator (m. ?–48 BC)
- Parents: Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra V
- Siblings: Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Arsinoe IV, Ptolemy XIV Philopator, Berenice IV
- Grandchildren: Ptolemy of Mauretania, Julia of Mauretania, Drusilla of Mauretania the Elder
Who was Cleopatra?
Cleopatra was the last Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt before it was taken over by Rome. She was born around 69 BC and ruled Egypt from 51-30 BC.
Here are some key points about Cleopatra's life and reign:
- She was part of the Ptolemy dynasty, a family of Greek Macedonians who took over ruling Egypt after Alexander the Great died. So she wasn't really Egyptian herself.
- For a while, she ruled together with her younger brothers Ptolemy XIII and then Ptolemy XIV. That was the tradition back then, but Cleopatra was super smart and savvy and eventually took full control.
- She used her brains to get the Roman hotshots Julius Caesar and Mark Antony on her side. She got military and political support from them by turning on the charm - she even had a son called Caesarion with Julius Caesar!
- Her relationship with Mark Antony led Rome to see them as enemies. When Octavian defeated them in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, it spelled disaster for Cleopatra.
- After Antony committed suicide in 30 BC, Cleopatra did the same rather than be paraded through Rome by Octavian as a captured prisoner. Her death ended the Ptolemaic line after over 300 years of Greek rule in Egypt.
Why Is Cleopatra So Famous?
Cleopatra has fascinated people for centuries, mostly because was a powerful, charismatic, and influential queen whose legend has endured through the ages.
She knew how to use her feminine wiles to get ahead, making powerful friends in Rome.
Even though Egypt lost its independence under her reign, Cleopatra made her mark on history as the last standout Ptolemaic ruler.
Her story has been retold in art and literature in many imaginative ways over the years.
Early Life and Rise to Power
Cleopatra VII was born in 69 BC in the city of Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great, and situated in the Nile Delta.
Cleopatra was an important queen of ancient Egypt and her name continues to this day.
She is one of the best-known women in the history of mankind. Throughout her life, she stood as a strategist, determined, very intelligent, cunning, and owner of a gigantic fortune.
Once the Greek philosopher Plutarch wrote the following about her: "The contact with her presence if we lived with her, was irresistible."
Birth and Family Lineage
The Egyptian ruler fascinated many people in her time. To this day she continues to enchant many.
Her life trajectory is widely studied, researched, and debated in order to understand her greatness.
There are some interesting facts:
- In a temple dedicated to the goddess Venus, at the request of the Roman leader Julius Caesar who was Cleopatra's lover, a golden statue of the Egyptian queen was built there.
- There are records that this monument was seen and venerated at the site until at least the 2nd century AD.
- Curiously, Cleopatra was even venerated as a true goddess, more precisely as a new goddess Isis, one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt.
- She was also identified as Aphrodite, a Greek goddess whose attributes are similar to those of Isis.
Education and Preparation for Rule
Cleopatra also had refined intelligence. She received a remarkable education together with the other children of royalty. She was educated in the palace where she lived.
Cleopatra was able to speak seven or eight languages which greatly facilitated her agreements and political stratagems.
She was reportedly the first person in her family to speak the Egyptian language without interpreters.
In addition, she succeeded in studying philosophy and rhetoric from an early age. She learned oratory which she knew how to use in a very intelligent way, speaking with the correct posture, appropriate gestures, and a soft voice.
With regard to her vast knowledge, it should be remembered that Cleopatra lived in Alexandria, a cultural center in antiquity with the famous Library of Alexandria full of many literary works in an unprecedented structure.
These local circumstances were very important and influential in the cultural formation of the Egyptian ruler.
Power Struggle with Ptolemy XIII
Her achievements made her the lover of two of the most famous Roman generals of her time, Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony.
As is often the case with historical figures, much information about the life of this remarkable woman has been distorted over time.
Today we can find the image of Cleopatra stamped on the most varied objects and her name is known by many people, although not by everyone what she was like in reality.
In fact, these physical representations of the figure of the queen usually consist of one of the many distorted points in her story.
Regarding the queen's look, Plutarch wrote the following words:
"She wasn't so unique that there were no comparisons, or that we couldn't look at her without being touched."
We can also get an idea of how she was physically through various coins that were created and circulated at the time when Cleopatra lived.
These objects are the most reliable sources for us to imagine what she looked like.
There are also some busts sculpted over time that apparently represent the queen.
When we see the coins, we notice the protrusion of the nose and chin. In fact, the philosopher Pascal wrote:
"If Cleopatra's nose had been smaller, the whole face of the world would have been different."
Taking into account this comic phrase and noticing the features that the powerful Egyptian woman has in the coins, we can conclude that perhaps she was not as extraordinarily beautiful as the cinema showed us, but one thing is certain: her conquest and way of being surpassed any Hollywood representation.
Let's see now why Cleopatra belonged to the Ptolemaic dynasty which was in power for three long centuries.
Their rule was marked by many marriages and murders among the family members themselves.
This imposing dynasty was born after the death of the mighty Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia.
With his death, his empire was divided among his generals. An ancestor of Cleopatra, Ptolemy the First Soter, was among them who initiated the Ptolemy dynasty after starting to rule the magnificent city of Alexandria, an unparalleled cultural center of ancient Egypt.
In view of this genealogical tree, it is important to remember that the powerful Cleopatra referred to in this video is Cleopatra VII.
Six other Cleopatra preceded her in her family lineage. In Alexandria, the queen lived in a luxurious palace full of wealth and beautiful ornaments.
The palace was huge and spacious with more than 100 rooms and a stunning external landscape.
There were breathtaking gardens decorated with beautiful statues and fountains. This fantastic palace was constantly enlarged with successive generations of Ptolemy and figures. The site became the most luxurious palace in the Mediterranean.
Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy XII, grew up in this reality. She had two sisters, Berenice IV and Arsinoe IV, and two brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV.
When her mother died, Berenice IV settled in power but her period as ruler was short and the young woman was killed by her own father.
It is important to underline again that the lineage of the Ptolemies had as one of its main characteristics the murders.
Later, Arsinoe IV was exiled by Julius Caesar and later executed by Mark Anthony at the behest of his own sister Cleopatra.
The fate of Ptolemy XIV was no different. Cleopatra began to rule Egypt at the age of 17 after the death of her father.
According to tradition, she married his brother Ptolemy XIII who at the time was only 13 years old.
Sometime after Cleopatra became the queen of Egypt, her brother and husband Ptolemy XIII began to take an interest in ruling the country without the intervention of his sister.
Pothanus, Achilles, and Theodotus of Chios, three important advisors to the young king, agreed with this idea to persuade the young man to break up with Cleopatra and remove her from power.
The queen during her government wanted to maintain political ties with Italy. In a showcase of her strategic skills, her goal was to strengthen her friendship with the Romans who could be important allies in the event of a civil war in Egypt.
Her main ally would be General Pompeii, leader of one of the most traditional Roman families. These diplomatic maneuvers led to Cleopatra being accused of treason for deceiving her brother.
At the age of 21, the young ruler was forced to leave Alexandria and went into exile in Syria where she assembled an army.
The young Egyptian king and his three advisors decided to go in search of the queen to prevent her return to Alexandria at all costs.
However, during their search, they learned of the unexpected news: Pompey, who rivaled the great Julius Caesar, was on his way to Egyptian lands.
He thought he would be welcomed by the Pharaoh himself since he had been a great friend of his father. Pompey the Great was a very skilled general.
Throughout his life, he conquered countless nations in Africa, Asia, and Europe. After suffering a defeat in Greece, the fearful Pompey fled to Egypt in search of refuge, after a disastrous defeat in Greece against his enemy Julius Caesar.
A conflict divided the Roman Empire between Pompey and Julius Caesar. This conflict became known as Caesar's Civil War.
Upon learning that Pompey intended to disembark in the country, the Egyptian partisans reflected: helping the old acquaintance Pompey was a risk because it could be interpreted as a declaration of war on Julius Caesar who commanded a very powerful war machine.
Moreover, Ptolemy and his allies believed that Pompey could go help Cleopatra regain her place in royalty and trouble had to be avoided. But Pompey had been a great friend of the father of the couple who ruled Egypt.
Therefore, if they did not help him, he could break ties with the country making Egypt an enemy of Rome. Theodotus and the two other counselors, Achilles and Pothonus, reflected on the matter.
It was a difficult decision and the consequences could be risky but eventually, as the three counselors struggled to find the solution, Theodotus with a smile looked at his companions and said: "The dead do not bite."
The choice had been made to break up with Pompey and establish an alliance with Julius Caesar.
As Pompey approached Alexandria, he felt he would be welcomed by the Egyptians but there was already a trap set up against the Romans.
Pretending that they would welcome him amicably, but as soon as Pompey arrived on Egyptian soil he was brutally beheaded.
A few days later, Julius Caesar arrived in Alexandria to seek out his adversary. The Egyptians showed him Pompey's head and Caesar was shocked by the violence. Despite being his enemy, Caesar respected Pompey.
On Caesar's orders, Ptolemy's advisor was executed. Caesar with his army went to the royal palace where he settled and informed himself that he would like to see the king and the queen.
It is important to remember that Ptolemy the 18th was prepared to face his sister's army when he was informed of Julius Caesar's arrival, he headed for his palace and Cleopatra.
How could she return if she had abandoned Alexandria and if her brother and faithful guardians wanted her away from the city? She was in danger and she knew that she could not be seen.
Then the queen had a rather unusual idea in order to meet Julius Caesar: she created a plan and to put it into practice had the help of a Sicilian supplier named Apollodorus.
They entered a boat where the queen was hidden, sailing the Nile River for eight days.
When they approached Alexandria, Cleopatra still with the help of Apollodorus entered the papayas and made the sack.
The queen's accomplice tied the big sack with a leather rope and carefully entered the palace leaving the sack in Julius Caesar's room.
We don't know exactly what the Roman's reaction was when he found Cleopatra but the Egyptian woman conquered him immediately. With Caesar by his side, everything would be easier.
The opportunity to get rid of his brother and rule according to his interests was finally within her reach.
With Pompey's assassination, Julius Caesar had a very negative opinion of Ptolemy. Cleopatra used the death of his former ally to her advantage.
The queen convinced Caesar that she was the right person for the throne of Egypt.
Romance and Alliance with Julius Caesar
The queen of Egypt and Julius Caesar entered a loving relationship. Caesar's decision to support Cleopatra angered Ptolemy who declared war on Julius Caesar.
The Roman general was at a numerical disadvantage and took a defensive position.
This event became known as the Siege of Alexandria. Caesar and his men fought hard to defend their position waiting for reinforcements.
When his allies arrived, Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army at the Battle of the Nile. The young pharaoh drowned in the river.
Exile and Return to Power
With Julius Caesar, the queen had a son named Ptolemy Caesar, historically and popularly known as Caesarion. Caesar's support was crucial to the consolidation of Cleopatra's power in Egypt.
The Roman general returned to Rome and Cleopatra reigned over Egypt. Everything seemed to go according to plan but a huge turnaround would eventually happen.
Seduction of Caesar in Alexandria
Cleopatra had consolidated her power on the throne of Egypt and under her administration, Egypt prospered and the city of Alexandria experienced a cultural boom financed by the queen. Cleopatra organized an expedition to Rome.
In the city, she stayed at Julius Caesar's mansion. The Egyptian queen took her son Caesarion on the voyage, the fruit of her union with the Roman general.
Julius Caesar was at the height of his power and as the leader of his nation made several political and social reforms. He also organized the triumph in his own honor.
The parade of Caesar had the presence of Arsinoe, Cleopatra's sister displayed as a prisoner, a symbol of Rome's victory over the Egyptians.
Caesar introduced the city to the Egyptian queen but at the time Rome did not yet have the glory that brought it into history. It was not yet comparable to Alexandria, the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Birth of Caesarion
Caesar's relationship with the foreigner was frowned upon by the Roman elite. There were a lot of rumors and lies about the couple. Caesar was named dictator in perpetuity and had an unrivaled power.
The Roman senators were left without much of their influence and feared losing their remaining power, so they conspired against Caesar's life. In 44 BC, Julius Caesar was murdered by Roman politicians in a Senate session.
Chaos engulfed Rome. General Mark Anthony, Caesar's right-hand man, pursued the conspirators. In a public square, he read Caesar's will where his son with Cleopatra was not among the heirs.
In his will, Caesar indicated his nephew Octavius as his successor. Rome was no longer a safe place for the Egyptian queen and she returned to her kingdom.
Meanwhile, Octavius and Mark Anthony led their armies in the persecution of the men who betrayed Caesar. There was a remarkable encounter between Cleopatra and Marc Anthony in the year 41.
He sent a messenger to Alexandria through this man he called the queen for a meeting in Tarsus, a city located in present-day Turkey.
The Egyptian queen arrived at the agreed place in a dazzling boat. The ship had a stern made of gold, its oars were made of silver and the sails were purple. The navigation was accompanied by music: fife, liar, and flute were played.
The queen herself was beautiful and ornated, freshened up by her servants and the boat had a wonderful smell. The entire population left her duties to follow Cleopatra's triumphal arrival. Mark Anthony fell in love with her immediately.
Still, in 41 BC, Cleopatra invited the mighty Mark Anthony to visit Alexandria. However, after spending some time in the Egyptian city and getting involved with the queen, the Romans left and the two continued to exchange correspondence.
The couple only met again after a long time, but before that reunion, something happened: in 40 BC Cleopatra gave birth to twins recognized by Mark Anthony himself as their heirs.
The children were called Helios, a Greek origin that means sun, and Selena which means moon.
During the absence of the Romans when he was separated from the Egyptian queen, he even resumed his relationship with his wife Fulvia in Rome.
Although he could not forget Cleopatra, Fulvia eventually died which may have made things easier and made it possible for Marc Anthony to finally join Cleopatra once again.
But Octavius, Julius Caesar's nephew, did not want that to happen. He suggested that his sister Octavia should marry the Roman general. That happened and they had three kids in two years.
Mark Anthony after Caesar's death became consul general. Later his power was divided between him, Octavius, and Lepidus, a political association known as the Second Triumvirate.
Lepidus distanced himself from political life which led to a dispute between Octavius and Mark Antony. The power in Rome was divided between the two: Caesar's nephew ruled the west while Mark Anthony managed the eastern provinces.
Although he was married and even against Octavius's will, the romance between Mark Anthony and Cleopatra was not over.
Rule of Egypt and Affair with Mark Antony
They met again in the city of Antioch where they made their union official. The romance between the two was thriving and they both seemed in love.
In Alexandria, the couple had many parties and banquets where they displayed their sovereignty.
However, the Roman was forced to leave Egypt after an attack by the Parthians in Syria and Asia Minor, the inhabitants of the Parthian Empire in Agent Persia.
Octavius reproved this union and was frustrated by the relationship between the Romans and the mighty Egyptians.
In part, this was due to his sister Octavia who ended up rejected by Mark Antony, and also for fear of losing part of the Roman Empire to the couple.
A new civil war broke out in Rome between the supporters of Marc Anthony and the defenders of Octavius.
Consolidation of Power after Caesar's Death
The Battle of Actium happened in 31 BC in a region in Greece where both faced each other.
Cleopatra accompanied her husband as he headed towards the long battle but when the defeat of Marc Anthony was already visible she returned to Egypt quietly announcing a false triumph.
Octavius achieved a decisive victory in the naval Battle of Actium and this victory marked the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the imperial period.
However, his opponents eventually discovered the truth. While Cleopatra tried to maintain her position and conquer allies, she did everything she could so that together with Marc Anthony they could rise again but he, after defeat, was no longer the same person.
Octavia said he would forgive Cleopatra if she killed her lover. Ignoring the proposal, the Egyptian queen continued to try to motivate her husband while she tried to discover together with her personal physician a painless poison.
The queen was preparing for the worst, the end. The end for Marc Anthony was tragic. While Cleopatra tried to flee from Octavius and his army who had already arrived in Alexandria, the Roman soldier received the news that his lover had died. Desperate, he took his sword and wounded his own chest.
However, the strike was not accurate and Marc Anthony did not die immediately. While he was bleeding and suffering from the pain caused by the blow he was informed that Cleopatra was still alive and managed to find the Egyptian monarch. His last breath happened in the arms of his lover.
When he reached his other half, Marc Anthony had already lost a lot of blood and there was nothing that could save his life. Before dying, however, in the arms of his beloved Cleopatra, he asked her to collaborate with his opponent Octavius in order to save herself.
After this request, the great Roman Mark Anthony died. Caesar's heir, Caesarion, was also killed by Octavian sometime later.
At funerals, it was common for women to hurt themselves with punches and scratches accompanied by cries of pain and despair. That's what Cleopatra did in front of his late lover. Her injuries caused an infection and she received treatment on the orders of Octavius.
However, the queen, shaken by the death of her beloved Mark Anthony and afraid of the future, tried to resist the treatment so that she could die.
But Octavius terrorized her with threats to her children. Cleopatra gave in and out of love for the heirs and accepted the proper treatment until she recovered her health.
Cleopatra also had an impactful end. It was one of the events that eternalized her in history. The queen failed to escape her rival Octavius who arrested her in Alexandria but she resisted and would not surrender to the enemy going through the humiliation of being a prisoner and hostage of Rome.
Declaration as "Queen of Kings"
That would be too embarrassing for a woman like her. As for her sons, Caesarion was murdered as was said and the others were taken to Rome to be raised by Octavia.
Cleopatra was constantly watched over by order of Octavius since she had attempted suicide twice after the death of Marc Anthony. But Octavius's plans didn't go as expected.
The queen, always cunning, put an end to her own life before that she sent a letter to Octavius in which she asked to be buried next to her late husband.
In relation to her death, some sources say that she was voluntarily bitten by a serpent and died from the poison.
Other sources and scholars affirm that Cleopatra took some poison. With these uncertainties, her end is quite controversial.
Some sources say Cleopatra's personal physician had a great deal of knowledge about poisons. Besides, the queen was always a strategist and effective person. Most likely, she prepared for her death in advance.
Finally, even though the most famous version is the one that states that Cleopatra died while being deliberately bitten by a serpent, it's more likely she ingested some lethal poison that did not cause major discomfort at the time of her death.
She was found on top of a couch dressed in beautiful garments. People claimed that she had a serene expression. She died nine days after the death of her lover.
Her funeral was solemn and elegant, worthy of an Egyptian queen. Her request to be buried next to Marc Anthony was respected.
Death and Lasting Legend
After the death of the powerful monarch, Egypt became a Roman province. It was the end of the hegemony of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Cleopatra's story is fascinating.
Many of her female ancestors were important Egyptian rulers along with their husbands. Curiously, Egyptian women at that time had more freedom than women from other civilizations.
Cleopatra did not play a secondary role in this lineage of women rulers and was a renowned figure. Her life journey was particularly hectic and impressive in many ways.
Firstly, the Ptolemaic lineage is impressive due to the number of murders among the family members themselves.
This habit indeed was inherited by Cleopatra but regardless of these murders, the Ptolemaic government was very important to Egypt and Cleopatra had major responsibilities and had to make important decisions throughout her life as ruler of Egypt.
She had admirers and rivals. She was skillful, proactive, and extremely influential. She was a rare, special, quite determined woman. She always had strategies to achieve all her goals.
Cleopatra marveled at everyone because of her great knowledge and also because of her differentiated intelligence.
The profile of the Egyptian queen with all these qualities allowed her to conquer two of the most legendary characters in history - the powerful Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony.
As time went by, Cleopatra's figure was often misrepresented and the Egyptian woman was seen with prejudice at times.
It seems that her entire life path and conquest boiled down to having seduced these two Romans but this view of the queen's life is simplistic since she has had great political achievements.
In any case, the legendary Egyptian queen has become a source of inspiration for some of the greatest artists in history, among them the painter Michelangelo and William Shakespeare. In their hands, the ruler became an illustrious piece of art.
As we learn more about her story we realize it's not by chance that Cleopatra has fascinated so many people in her time and continues to captivate so many others in this day and age.
She was a rare, special, quite determined woman who always had strategies to achieve her goals.
Her story shows her intelligence, determination, and political abilities as much as her beauty and romances.
She was the last pharaoh of an iconic ancient civilization and remains legendary centuries after her death.
10 Surprising Facts About Cleopatra
Cleopatra! What a fascinating woman she was. Let’s journey back in time to the fascinating world of ancient Egypt, where we'll explore 10 surprising facts about one of the most iconic figures in history - Cleopatra!
1. MEANING OF CLEOPATRA
Look at Cleopatra's name. It means Glory of her father or her father's Fame in Greek, and it was a name that was bestowed upon her due to her exceptional intelligence which her father greatly admired.
Now, as a result, she received tutoring in a wide range of subjects from a very young age.
Her full name is actually Cleopatra the seventh Thea filopeter, and she was the seventh princess in her family to bear this name.
Her daughter was the last to be named Cleopatra, thus bringing an end to this tradition of the naming of Cleopatra.
2. QUESTIONABLE BEAUTY
Is Cleopatra beautiful and super attractive, or was she just average? Cleopatra's Legacy is definitely known worldwide thanks to her numerous contributions to the Egyptian Empire and her reputation as one of the most powerful Queens in recorded history.
There are many ancient texts that describe her as exceptionally beautiful, often likening her appearance to that of a goddess.
However, modern historians have actually cast some doubt on these descriptions, suggesting that the sculptures and paintings depicting her may not actually reflect the beauty standards of the time. So check it out.
Upon examining ancient carvings, as well as sculptures, scholars have noted that while Cleopatra's features, such as her very prominent nose, as well as her strong jawline, could be considered more masculine by modern standards, in any case, though some argue that these traits may have been considered attractive during the era in which she lived, according to the beauty standards of that time period.
3. NOT EGYPTIAN
Cleopatra was born in Egypt, right? Her lineage can be traced back to Macedonian Greece. Ptolemy the first stir was a general of Alexander the Great.
Following Alexander the Great's death in 323 BC, Ptolemy took control of Egypt and established a dynasty of Greek-speaking rulers that endured for nearly 300 years.
Despite not being of Egyptian descent, Cleopatra adopted numerous ancient Egyptian traditions and was the first of the Ptolemaic dynasty to become proficient in the Egyptian language.
4. MULTIPLE LANGUAGES
Cleopatra was a woman though who understood and could speak multiple different languages.
She began studying Greek at a young age and eventually became proficient in speaking, reading, and writing it.
In addition to Greek, she learned multiple other languages like Egyptian, Ethiopian, Aramaic, Syriac, Median, Parthian, and Arabic.
This proved to be very valuable during her reign as Queen of Egypt.
Her extensive education and familiarity with Egyptian customs and traditions earned her greater popularity among the Egyptian people.
5. PRODUCT OF INCEST
Did you know that Cleopatra was a product of incest? As was common in royal families, the Ptolemaic dynasty frequently engaged in intermarriage to maintain the purity of their bloodline.
Over a dozen of Cleopatra's ancestors married cousins or siblings, and it is probable that her own parents were siblings.
In adherence to this practice, Cleopatra went on to marry both of her teenage brothers who each acted as her ceremonial spouse and co-ruler during different periods of her rain.
6. DRINKING CLUB
This is a very interesting one. So Cleopatra's life is full of intriguing details such as her involvement in a drinking club with her Roman lover Mark Anthony known as the inimitable livers club, which began back in 41 BC at the height of its popularity.
The group claimed to be a society dedicated to the worship of the Greek god of wine and winemaking, Dionysus, and it celebrated him through drinking.
However, some saw the club as an excuse for indulgence and immorality. Members of the club held secret nightly feasts and preparations away from the public eye.
On top of that, Cleopatra and Marc Anthony would often times put on disguises to spend the evening playing pranks on the people of Egypt, as well as, you know, doing all other things.
7. IDENTIFIED AS A GODDESS
Cleopatra is identified as a goddess. Cleopatra believed herself to be descended from the Goddess Isis, whom the Egyptians revered as the goddess of the moon and the daughter of the Egyptian god Jeb, the god of Earth, and Newt, the goddess of the sky.
Isis was also the wife of Osiris, the god of the underworld, and the mother of Horus.
According to Egyptian mythology, as the goddess of life and magic, Isis was highly regarded in ancient Egypt for her protection of women and children and her healing abilities.
It's for this reason that she was considered one of the greatest goddesses in Egyptian mythology.
8. NEVER GOT DIVORCED
Also, did you know that Cleopatra never got divorced? Although Cleopatra was married several times, she did not follow the customary divorce procedures. Polygamy was widely accepted during the era, and individuals could legally marry as many spouses as they desired. Cleopatra maintained amicable relations with her lovers and continued to be married to them throughout her reign. This was advantageous because she used these relationships to gain access to the power that they held, as well as partial control over their armies.
9. PARTICULAR DIET
Cleopatra also was known for having a very particular diet. According to historical records, Queen Cleopatra was known for being very particular about the foods that she consumed during her reign as Queen of Egypt.
At that time, many people in Egypt followed a precursor to the Mediterranean diet, and their meals usually revolved around simple dishes that incorporated meat and a variety of fish.
Translations of ancient papyri have revealed that Queen Cleopatra had a fondness for stuffed pigeons and often served this dish herself.
Her meals also typically featured seasonal vegetables and fava bean soup, along with other items such as mutton, nuts, figs, honey, and Greek wine, all chosen to satisfy her discerning taste buds.
10. MEDICAL TREATISE
Let's talk about her medical treatise. Cleopatra titled her medical manuscript Cosmetics and began compiling her knowledge of medical and pharmacological discoveries.
Her manuscripts documented various ancient Egyptian techniques and remedies for common health problems ranging from minor issues such as dandruff and hair loss to more serious illnesses.
In addition to treatments for these ailments, Cleopatra also researched ways to maintain her own physical strength and health to ensure her continued ability to govern the Egyptian dynasty.
These written records serve as a testament to Cleopatra's intellectual capabilities.